With the invention of intercontinental ballistic missiles ICBMslaunch on warning became an integral part of mutually assured destruction MAD theory. Under the strategy, a retaliatory strike is launched upon warning of enemy nuclear attack while its missiles are still in the air and before detonation occurs. Strategic Air Command had multiple bombers on patrol at all times  like, presumably, its Soviet counterpart. In the United States, the bombers were typically either B Stratojets or Nostra Nineteenine - After Hours - Launch Detected Stratofortressesand there were three major flight routes.
Keeping bombers in the air assured that a second strike would be feasible Nostra Nineteenine - After Hours - Launch Detected if the first strike were to impair ground facilities.
The battle Teenage Gluesniffer - The Queers - Beat Off included a general or flag officer who was authorized to order a retaliatory strike if the President could not be contacted. Launch on warning has its roots in US President Dwight Eisenhower 's "Positive Control" strategy but really took shape with the introduction of the Minuteman missile. Since many ICBMs including the Minuteman were launched from underground silos, the concern arose that a first strike, by one nation, could destroy the ground launch facilities of the retaliating nation.
Inthe Clinton administration changed the official policy away from launch on warning to one of retaliation after withstanding an initial first strike. There were two primary options. One option, "retaliation after ride-out", required the second-strike nation to wait until after it was attacked to launch their missiles.
Some portion of the nuclear arsenal would inevitably be destroyed in such an attack, which led to both superpowers investing heavily in survivable basing modes  for their nuclear forces, including hardened underground missile silos for ICBMs,  and Nostra Nineteenine - After Hours - Launch Detected ballistic missiles. The other choice was "launch on warning", launching nuclear missiles before the other side's missiles could destroy them. That became possible primarily because of improvements in missile technology that allowed for faster launches,  along with invention of the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System in the early s, which made it possible for the US to detect the launch of Soviet missiles.
Evidence Esquire Bounce - Chu Berrys Jazz Ensemble* / Hawkins - Tatum All Stars - Uptown Jazz in declassified documents suggests that launch on warning was at least in part the policy of the United States from the late s through to at least the s.
Strategies are available that can reduce the effectiveness of a launch-on-warning stance. For example, the first-strike nation can use a technique called X-ray pin-down to delay a retaliatory response. It involves a barrage of submarine-based missiles fired from close range in a "depressed trajectory" mode that reaches its targets in minutes.
The warheads would be set to explode every minute or so at high altitudes, which significantly disrupts the ability of the attacked nation to launch its own ICBMs. The deployment of submarine-launched ballistic missiles SLBMs decreases the strategic need for a launch-on-warning strategy. These submarines are capable of hiding in the ocean during an attack, thus ensuring that a second strike can be made even if the attacked country is unable to launch a land-based counterstrike.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Nuclear strategy. Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 4 April Nuclear Weapons Doctrine". Trashbag - Headwound - Ginmill Control Today. Arms Control Association. Retrieved 11 January Capabilities, ". The National Security Archive.
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